The materials used in the Montessori method introduce the child to associate quantity and its symbols i.e., the numbers 0 through 9. The quantities are introduced by a series of rods, which the child can count. Then he/she matches the sets of symbol cards with the rods. Using a wide range of beads and symbol cards, the child becomes familiar with the numbers as a decimal system, including concrete experiences with the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

These exercises not only teach the child to calculate, but they provide a deep understanding how numbers function and the relationship between the various concepts like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The children can use different materials to work with concepts, fractions are also introduced to the children.